To mention that a wine has terpenes, pyrazines, norisoprenoids or volatile thiols in the musts, just to name a few, can be hard to understand by the consumer. However, if you were told that the bottle of wine you just bought is composed of a grape wine which releases in its elaboration floral aromas (terpenes) and has a strong scent of pepper (pyrazines), could relate well these references with a Cabernet Sauvignon.
However, if you were told that in your wine there are flavors of exotic fruit, rose and even applesauce (norisoprenoids), one might guess that is about to drink a Chardonnay. On the other hand, if in the liquid you perceive notes of guava, citrus peel and grapefruit (volatile thiols in the must), this consumer would identify that he is facing a Sauvignon Blanc.
The smell, taste and aroma of a wine depend then on their chemical composition; and the prevalence of either substance in each wine will determine its nature. For this reason, knowing what grape is in the wine you buy is essential in identifying which is the variety that you like best.
Beyond the process of elaboration of a wine is almost always the same, the unique expression of the grape responds to its terroir (soil, climate, insolation, care of the vine), which in each region has different nuances and becomes therefore in particular wines.
In general, white wines release citrus aromas of lemon, orange or grapefruit, and fruits such as pear, apricot, melon or gooseberry. On the other hand, the red varieties are characterized by its load of anthocyanins, a substance responsible for the color of the wine that come off when the broken flesh contacts with the skin or peel; and the presence of tannins, polyphenolic compounds associated with astringency and bitter flavor on wine, which prolong its life and provide the consumer, among other things, antioxidants. These evoke red fruits like cherry, plum, raspberry, strawberry or blackberry. Both vinifications can also offer mineral aromas, spices, grass and other, common to fermentation such as bread or yeast.
Wine is not only grapes, but its aromas and flavors are made through chemical processes to which it is subjected, such as fermentation (transformation of the sugar contained in grapes into alcohol), sometimes malolactic fermentation (conversion of malic acid, usually associated with green apple, becoming lactic acid), and aging (preservation in oak barrel or bottle). However, there are some common factors that are expressed in each varietal and remain always reflected in the final product, the bottle.